The Russian academic framework was fundamentally incompatible with the process. The generic level, the lowest in all universities since Soviet times is the specialist who can be acquired after five to six years of study. Since the mid-1990s, many universities have implemented limited programs that allow students to obtain a bachelor`s degree in four years and a master`s degree in one to two years, while maintaining the old system. The following ministerial conference was held in Berlin in 2003, so that the Berlin communiqué extended the number of countries to 40 members. The main provisions of this communiqué were to extend the objectives to promote the interconnection of the European Higher Education Area with the European Research Area and to promote quality assurance. Another important aspect mentioned in the Berlin communiqué was the creation of monitoring structures that would support the process between two ministerial meetings. This agreement established the Bologna Monitoring Group, the Board of Directors and the Bologna Secretariat. The Bologna Ministerial Advisory Group was established in 2007 as part of Australia`s response to the Bologna process for higher reforms in Europe. The purpose of the Ministerial Advisory Group in Bologna (BMAG) is to help the government and the sector stay abreast of developments in Bologna and anticipate problems for Australia. The members of the group are interested in the developments of the Bologna process. Bologna is of interest to Australia for a number of reasons, including the fact that it is an important internationalization process and aims to improve the mobility of students and graduates.
The main objective of the Bologna Agreement is the creation of a European higher education area. It increases the mobility of students and researchers, makes studies more attractive in Europe and facilitates the recognition of diplomas. The bachelor`s degree (a four- to six-year course) was required for applicants who wished to complete the former master and doctoral studies, but admission was reserved for those with a bachelor`s degree with a score above 14 (out of 20). After the changes introduced by the Bologna process, the master`s degree is awarded at the end of a program that corresponds to roughly the same periods to many old licenciatura programs. The process was designed to improve the education system, which is based on skills development, not knowledge transfer. Its aim was to develop an easily comparable system of diplomas, in order to facilitate the comparison of qualifications throughout Europe. Its flexibility and transparency should enable a wider recognition of students` qualifications, facilitate the freedom of practice of a European higher education area on the basis of two main cycles (bachelor and graduate) and offer PhD students a postgraduate degree.